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Severe Acute Hepatitis of Unknown Origin in Children

Updates on the Outbreak from Major Organisations and Publications

UK Health Security Agency - Increase in hepatitis (liver inflammation) cases in children under investigation 

WHO - Acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology 

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children 

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - Epidemiological update issued 19 May 2022: hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children

CDC - Health Alert Network 

CDC - Persons Under Investigation - Children with Acute Hepatitis of Unknown Etiology

CDC - Clinical Recommendations for Adenovirus Testing and Reporting of Children with Acute Hepatitis of Unknown Etiology - 19 May 2022


SARS-CoV-2 ORF1ab potentiate autoreactive T cell responses via epitope mimicry: an explanation to hepatitis of unknown cause - bioRxiv - updated 23 May 2022

Is adenovirus infection associated with severe acute seronegative hepatitis in young children in the UK: protocol for a frequency matched case-control study. UK case control study protocol - UK Health Security Agency

Persons Under Investigation. Children with Acute Hepatitis of Unknown Etiology - CDC - 18 May 2022

Update on Children with Acute Hepatitis of Unknown Cause - CDC - 18 May 2022

Emerging cases of acute hepatitis of unknown origin in children amid the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic: Needs attention - Correspondence - Inrl J Surg - 18 May 2022

Acute severe hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children: a new non-A-E hepatitis virus on horizon? - Clin Microbiol Infect - 17 May 2022

Epidemiological Alert: Acute, severe hepatitis of unknown origin in children - PAHO WHO - 17 May 2022

Editorial. Acute hepatitis of unknown origin in children - BMJ - 17 May 2022

The recent outbreak of acute and severe hepatitis of unknown etiology in children: a possible role of human adenovirus infection? - Journal of Medical Virology - 16 May 2022.   PubMed record

Acute hepatitis in children of unknown cause may be associated with the super antigen of the Coronavirus: study - Global Times - 16 May 2022
...Severe acute hepatitis in children: investigate SARS-CoV-2 superantigens - Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology - 14 May 2022.  PubMed record

Elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin following SARS-CoV-2 infection in children under 10 - medRxiv - 14 May 2022

Hepatitis of unknown origin in children - WHO/Europe and ECDC launch the first joint surveillance bulletin - 13 May 2022

Increase in severe acute hepatitis cases of unknown aetiology in children. situation update - European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - 13 May 2022

Updates on severe hepatitis of unknown etiology - Infectious Diseases Society of American - 13 May 2022

High population burden of Omicron variant (B.1.1.529) is associated with the emergence of severe hepatitis of unknown etiology in children - International Journal of Infectious Diseases - 12 May 2022.  PubMed record

Note from the editors: Acute hepatitis among children, establishing evidence and baselines for comparison - Eurosurveillance - 12 May 2022

Explaining the unexplained hepatitis in children - Lancet Infectious Diseases - 12 May 2022

Case numbers of acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology among children in 24 countries up to 18 April 2022 compared to the previous 5 years - Eurosurveillance - 12 May 2022

Red Book Online Outbreaks: Hepatitis Cases Possibly Associated with Adenoviral Infection - American Academy of Pediatrics - 12 May 2022

Coronavirus ‘ghosts’ found lingering in the gut. Scientists are studying whether long COVID could be linked to viral fragments found in the body months after initial infection - Nature - 11 May 2022

Epidemiological update: Hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children - European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - 11 May 2022

Updated Recommendations for Adenovirus Testing and Reporting of Children with Acute Hepatitis of Unknown Etiology - CDC HAN Health Alert Network - 11 May 2022

Update: Clusters of Children with Severe Acute Hepatitis Reported Globally: Is Adenovirus F- 41 the Cause? - Coalition for Global Hepatitis Elimination - 11 May 2022

Unexplained hepatitis cases in kids rise to 348 in 20 nations - CIDRAP - 10 May 2022

Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Due to Type 2 Autoimmune Hepatitis Associated With SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Case Report - Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition - May 2022

Clusters of Hepatitis of Unknown Origin and Etiology (Acute Non HepA–E Hepatitis) Among Children in 2021/2022: A Review of the Current Findings - PrePrints - 5 May 2022

COVID-19 Associated Hepatitis in Children (CAH-C) during the second wave of SARS-CoV-2 infections in Central India: Is it a complication or transient phenomenon - medRxiv - 9 May 2022

Hunt begins for the cause of acute hepatitis cases - Lancet - 7 May 2022

Investigation into acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children in England. Technical briefing 2 - UK Health Security Agency - 6 May 2022

Acute hepatitis is identified in more children, but cause remains elusive - BMJ - 6 May 2022

Children with Hepatitis of Unknown Cause [including Clinical Guidance for Adenovirus Testing and Typing of Patients Under Investigation  and  Instructions for Adenovirus Diagnostic Testing, Typing, and Submission] - CDC - 6 May 2022

Pediatric Hepatitis of Unknown Origin Cases Mounting. 14% Received Liver Transplants; 5 Deaths Reported - IDSE - Infectious Disease Special Edition - 6 May 2022

The recent outbreak of acute severe hepatitis in children of unknown origin – what is known so far - Journal of Hepatology - 6 May 2022

Acute, Severe Hepatitis of Unknown Origin: Should We Really Be Afraid of Another Obscure Enemy of Our Children? - Pediatric Reports - 3 May 2022

Acute hepatitis of unknown cause in children - Victoria - 1 May 2022

Epidemiological Alert: Acute, severe hepatitis of unknown origin in children, 29 April 2022. Technical note - WHO - 29 April 2022

Acute Hepatitis and Adenovirus Infection Among Children - Alabama, October 2021–February 2022 - Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) - 29 April 2022

Members Brief: multi-country, severe non-viral hepatitis of unknown origin in children - Hepatitis Australia / Gastroenterological Society of Australia - 29 April 2022

Mystery outbreak of severe acute hepatitis in children - Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology - 29 April 2022

Outbreak of Acute Hepatitis of Unknown etiology in Children; The Critical Role of Healthcare Professionals in Neutralizing Misleading Narratives during the COVID-19 Pandemic - Journal of Medical Virology - 29 April 2022

Severe hepatitis of unknown cause in 15 nations: Does pathology offer a clue? - Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) - 29 April 2022

ECDC publishes Rapid Risk Assessment - Increase in severe acute hepatitis cases of unknown aetiology in children - European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control - 28 April 2022
...Increase in severe acute hepatitis cases of unknown aetiology in children 

Acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children - NSW Health - 28 April 2022

Hepatitis in children: What’s behind the outbreaks? - BMJ - 26 April 2022

Expert reaction to technical briefing and update from the UKHSA on acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology in children in England - Science Media Centre - 26 April 2022

CDC Alerts Providers to Hepatitis Cases of Unknown Origin - 21 April 2022

CDC Recommendations for Adenovirus Testing and Reporting of Children with Acute Hepatitis of Unknown Etiology - 21 April 2022

Acute hepatitis of unknown aetiology – the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland - WHO - 15 April 2022

Investigation into cases of hepatitis of unknown aetiology among young children, Scotland, 1 January 2022 to 12 April 2022 - Eurosurveillance - 14 April 2022

Scientists search for cause of hepatitis cases in children - BMJ - 14 April 2022

Acute hepatitis: technical briefing - UK Health Security Agency - 25 April 2022

Multi-Country – Acute, severe hepatitis of unknown origin in children - WHO - 23 April 2022

Acute Liver Failure in Children - eBook chapter from Textbook of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition - First online 25 November 2021

SARS-CoV-2 Infection May Present as Acute Hepatitis in Children - Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal - May 2021

Cryo-EM structure of enteric adenovirus HAdV-F41 highlights structural variations among human adenoviruses - Science - 24 February 2021