Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.
Library and Information Services for the East Metropolitan Health Service and the South Metropolitan Health Service banner Library and Information Services for the East Metropolitan Health Service and the South Metropolitan Health Service home Library and Information Services for the East Metropolitan Health Service and the South Metropolitan Health Service logo

Systematic Reviews

Other Review Types

There are many question frameworks that can be used.

BeHEMoTh= Behaviour of interest -Health context -Exclusions -Models or Theories
CHIP= Context -How the study was conducted -the Issues examined -and the People involved in the study
CLIP= Client group -location -Improvement / Information / Innovation / Professionals (qualitative studies)
CoCoPop= Condition -Context -Population  (for questions related to prevalence or incidence)
COPES= Client -Oriented -Practical -Evidence -Search
COSMIN= COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments
https://www.cosmin.nl/
ECLIPSE= Expectation -Client group -Location -Impact -Professionals -SErvice (evaluating outcomes of policies or services)
PCC = Population –Concept -Context
PEO= Population -Exposure -Outcome   (for studies of association - etiology and impact on outcomes)
PECO = Population -Exposure -Comparator -Outcome
PFO = Population -Prognostic Factors (or models of interest) -Outcome
PICO= Population -Intervention -Comparator/s -Outcomes
PICo= Population -Interest –Context
PICOA = Population, Intervention, Control, Outcomes, Application
PICOC= Population -Intervention -Comparator/s -Outcomes -Context
PICOS= Population -Interest -Context -Outcomes -Study Design
PICOT= Population -Intervention -Comparator/s -Outcomes -Time or Type of Study
PICOC= Population -Intervention -Comparator/s -Outcomes –Context
PIE= Patient / Population / Problem -Intervention / Issue -Evaluation / Effect (method)
PIFT= Product / Processes -Impact -Flows -Types
PIRD= Population -Index Test -Reference Test -Diagnosis of Interest
FINER= Feasible -Interesting -Novel -Ethical -Relevant
PECODR= Patient / Population / Problem -Exposure/ Intervention -Comparison -Outcome -Duration -Results
RETREAT= Review Question -Epistemology -Time/Timeframe -Resources -Expertise -Audience -Type of Data (for a qualitative synthesis)
SDMO= Studies -Data -Methods -Outcomes
SPICE= Setting -Perspective / Population -Interest / Intervention -Comparison –Evaluation
SPIDER= Sample -Phenomenon of Interest –Design –Evaluation -Research type
TREAD= Time/Timeframe -Resources -Expertise -Audience -Data
and more

Systematic and Other Reviews: Criteria and Complexities. Editorial  
Sataloff RT, et al.  
Laryngoscope. 17 May 2021
 

Meeting the review family: exploring review types and associated information retrieval requirements.
Sutton A, Clowes M, Preston L, Booth A.
Health Info Libr J. 2019 Sep;36(3):202-222. doi: 10.1111/hir.12276.

A typology of reviews: an analysis of 14 review types and associated methodologies.
Grant MJ, Booth A.
Health Info Libr J. 2009 Jun;26(2):91-108. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-1842.2009.00848.x
.

Using a framework to structure your question - City University of London

What kind of systematic review should I conduct? A proposed typology and guidance for systematic reviewers in the medical and health sciences
Zachary Munn, Cindy Stern, Edoardo Aromataris, Craig Lockwood, Zoe Jordan
BMC Med Res Methodol. 2018; 18: 5.

Identifying the PECO: A framework for formulating good questions to explore the association of environmental and other exposures with health outcomes
Rebecca L Morgan, Paul Whaley, Kristina A Thayer, Holger J Schünemann
Environ Int. 2018 Dec;121(Pt 1):1027-1031. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.07.015. Epub 2018 Aug 27.

Moola S, Munn Z, Sears K, et al. Conducting systematic reviews of association (etiology): the Joanna Briggs Institute's approach. Int J Evid Based Healthc. 2015;13(3):163–169